Terminology for Grade Four

adagio slowly largamente broadly
andante at an easy walking pace larghetto rather broadly
moderato at a moderate speed prestissimo extremely fast, or as fast as possible
allegro cheerful and fast con moto with movement
presto very fast tempo commodo at a comfortable speed
lento slowly tempo giusto at a precise speed
largo broadly l'istesso tempo at the same speed
allegretto moderately fast non troppo not too much
vivace lively, fast grave very slow and solemn
vivo alive, lively
Modifications of Tempo
accelerando (accel.) gradually becoming faster allargando becoming broader
rallentando (rall.) gradually becoming slower piu mosso quicker
ritardando (rit.) gradually becoming slower meno mosso slower
ritenuto (riten.) (rit.) held back rubato with some freedom in the tempo
a tempo return to former speed
stringendo pressing on faster
crescendo (cres.) (cresc.) gradually becoming louder calando getting softer and slower
decrescendo (decres.) gradually becoming softer morendo dying away
diminuendo (dim.) gradually becoming softer forte-piano (fp) loud then immediately soft
forte (f) loud sforzando (sf) (sfz) a strong accent
piano (p) soft perdendosi fading away
pianissimo (pp) very soft smorzando dying away
fortissimo (ff) very loud rinforzando (rfz) (rf) reinforcing the tone
mezzo forte (mf) moderately loud pesante heavily
mezzo piano (mp) moderately soft
Other Terms
legato smoothly, well connected con anima with feeling
staccato detached, short con brio with spirit
maestoso majestic con grazia with grace
sostenuto sustained con forza with force
sempre always dolce sweetly
poco a little risoluto with resolution
molto very ben marcato well marked
senza without main droite (m.d.) right hand
cantabile in a singing style main gauche (m.g.) left hand
leggiero lightly una corda with the soft pedal
fine the end tre corde release the soft pedal
dal segno from the sign ad libitum at pleasure, quite freely
da capo al fine from the beginning to the word fine opus a work or group of works
mezzo staccato moderately short and detached loco at normal pitch (after an 8ve sign)
agitato with agitation cantando in a singing style
attacca to go on at once piacevole pleasant, agreeable
animato with animation dolente sadly, plaintively
tranquillo calmly doloroso sadly, plaintively
tenuto (ten) held giocoso gay, merry
portamento a smooth gliding from one note to another (as in singing or string playing) assai much, sufficient
sotto voce softly, in an undertone scherzando playfully
grazioso gracefully
quasi as if, as it were
subito (sub) suddenly
Terms referring to String Playing sul tasto bow on or near the finger board
sul ponticello (sul pont) bow on or near the bridge pizzicato (pizz) pluck the string with the finger (instead of bowing it)
tremolo bowing very rapidly (usually on one note at a time) to produce a shimmering or wavering effect arco with the bow (used after a pizz. sign)